A systematic approach to clarify, prioritise, and justify various courses of public health action based on ethical principles, stakeholder values and beliefs, and scientific and other information is known as public health ethics. Public health ethics can be separated into two categories: research and practise. Public health ethics is a topic of research that aims to understand and clarify the ideas and values that underlie public health initiatives. Principles and values provide a context for making judgments as well as a way to justify them.
The authority of the government at various jurisdictional levels to promote the health of the general population within societal constraints and norms is examined in public health law. Public health law focuses on the government's responsibilities in achieving these goals, as well as the limits to that power and the population's perspective.