Title : A 12-year follow-up study on lifestyle and hypertension in Korean adults
To investigate the sex-specific associations of lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, physical activity), and risk of hypertension, and whether these associations differ by body mass index (BMI) and selected demographic characteristics.
A total of 121,244 participants (29,327 with hypertension), aged ≥20 years were selected from the 2002-2015 National Health Insurance Service database and followed up until December 2015. Lifestyle factors were assessed using a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire and evaluated as: smoking (never, past, current); drinking (past/never, current); and physical activity (yes, no). Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP)/diastolic blood pressure(DBP) of ≥120/80mmHg or physician diagnosis or taking antihypertensive medication at follow-up. Associations were examined using multivariable cox models.
A total of 15,860 men and 13,467 women developed hypertension. The associations of lifestyle factors, and risk of hypertension were observed only in men (past vs. never smoker: hazard ratio [HR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.16; current vs. never smoker: HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.13; current vs. non/never drinker: HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.11; physical activity: HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99). In stratified analyses, past smoking increased the risk of hypertension in men who had high income, obesity, resided in urban regions, and subscribed to regional insurance. Furthermore, physical activity reduced the risk of hypertension among men who resided in rural regions and were employee-insured. However, current smoking increased the risk of hypertension in women who had low income, normal weight, resided in rural regions, and subscribed to employee-insurance. Drinking was protective of hypertension only in normal-weight women and those with employee-insurance.
Smoking, and drinking increased, but physical activity decreased the risk of hypertension. These associations differed by sex and demographic sub-groups. These results can inform the development of effective policies for the prevention of hypertension.
Audience Take Away:
Explain how the audience will be able to use what they learn.
The research findings can be used to develop guidelines for the prevention and management of hypertension. Policies or programs can be created to encourage improvements in unhealthy lifestyle factors, such as smoking, drinking, and physical inactivity, to enhance hypertension prevention. In addition, educational programs for the prevention and treatment of hypertension can be developed for hypertensive patients.
Is this research that other faculty could use to expand their research or teaching?
The research results can be beneficial to other researchers or educators. These findings can be used to develop programs or educational programs for hypertension prevention. Furthermore, the results can be used as a basis for identifying research topics related to hypertension in other studies.
Will it improve the accuracy of a design, or provide new information to assist in a design problem?
The results suggest that lifestyle factors such as smoking, drinking, and physical inactivity are associated with the development of hypertension, highlighting the importance of improving these factors for hypertension prevention. Moreover, by demonstrating the gender differences in the risk of hypertension development, the necessity of gender-specific hypertension prevention and management can be emphasized.